The basic method of obesity treatment is diet therapy aimed at long-term maintenance of negative energy balance by restricting the caloric intake of the diet.
The aim – to evaluate the effectiveness of the diet therapy program for weight loss with the use of a complex of amino acids and glucomannan.
Material and methods. To conduct the study, in accordance with the inclusion and exclusion criteria, a sample of 33 overweight or obese people was formed, of which 30 people (16 men and 14 women) took part in the study. The age of the persons included in the study ranged from 20 to 59 years (average 41.0±1.73 years), body mass index- from 26.4 to 45.5 kg/m2 (average 35.5±0.8 kg/m2), waist circumference as a criterion for abdominal obesity – 110.4±2.4 cm. Participants three times a day (7.00-9.00, 12.00-14.00 and 16.00-18.00) received within 14 days 15 g of powder dissolved in 200 ml of water containing whey protein concentrate, potassium (618 mg in the form of citrate), glucomannan, taurine (290 mg), zinc (2.5 mg in the form of sulfate), vitamins B6 (1.4 mg) and B12 (3 mcg), and 2 capsules containing L-isoleucine (340 mg), L-ornithine-alpha-ketoglutarate (290 mg), L-citrulline-DL-malate (290 mg) and L-tryptophan (80 mg). In the evening, the main meal was dinner, which included a protein dish with vegetables and herbs. The energy value of the evening meal was 400 kcal (1675 kJ), the proportion of protein, fat and carbohydrates was 40, 30 and 30%, respectively, of the calorie content of the evening meal.
Results. It was shown that the use of a 14-day course of the diet therapy program to reduce body weight was accompanied by a statistically significant decrease in body weight on average 6.3% of the initial level, an improvement in body composition indicators (a rather pronounced decrease in body fat mass by 9.2%, p<0.001, with a smaller decrease in lean body mass and skeletal muscle mass, respectively by 3.9 and 4.1%, p<0.001) and metabolic blood parameters (a decrease in serum glucose concentration, total cholesterol, triglycerides, total bilirubin and gamma-glutamyltransferase by 12.5, 15.0, 35.0, 22.8 and 34.6% respectively).
Conclusion. Application of the diet therapy program for weight loss «Non-invasive liposuction» allows us to recommend its use in obese patients in order to increase the effectiveness of therapeutic and prophylactic measures in correcting excess body weight, improving the parameters of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, and the functional state of the biliary system.
Izvorni link: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34264560/
Background. Multiple weight loss failures among obese patients suggest the design of new therapeutic strategies. We investigated the role of 2-week course of enteral treatment with a very low-calorie protein-based formula in the management of severe obesity. Methods. We evaluated the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of 2-week continuous administration of a protein-based formula (1.2 g/kg of ideal body weight/day) by nasogastric tube in severely obese adults (body mass index (BMI) ≥ 40 kg/m(2)). Results. In total, 364 patients (59% women; BMI = 46.6 ± 7.2 kg/m(2)) were recruited. The intervention was discontinued within 48 hours in 26 patients, due to nasogastric tube intolerance. No serious adverse events occurred. During the first and the second week, 65% and 80% patients, respectively, reported no side effects. All biochemical safety parameters were affected by the intervention, particularly uric acid (+45%) and aminotransferases (+48%). In the other cases the change was negligible. We observed significant weight loss (5.7 ± 2.3%) and improvement in blood pressure and glucose and lipid metabolism parameters (P < 0.001). Conclusions. A 2-week course of enteral treatment with a very low-calorie protein-based formula appeared a feasible, likely safe, and efficacious therapeutic option to be considered for inclusion into a composite weight loss program for the management of severe obesity. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01965990.
Izvorni link: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26064113/
Background Despite the richness in antioxidants of the Mediterranean diet, to our knowledge, no randomized controlled trials have assessed its effect on in vivo lipoprotein oxidation.
Methods A total of 372 subjects at high cardiovascular risk (210 women and 162 men; age range, 55-80 years), who were recruited into a large, multicenter, randomized, controlled, parallel-group clinical trial (the Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea [PREDIMED] Study) directed at testing the efficacy of the traditional Mediterranean diet (TMD) on the primary prevention of coronary heart disease, were assigned to a low-fat diet (n = 121) or one of 2 TMDs (TMD + virgin olive oil or TMD + nuts). The TMD participants received nutritional education and either free virgin olive oil for all the family (1 L/wk) or free nuts (30 g/d). Diets were ad libitum. Changes in oxidative stress markers were evaluated at 3 months.
Results After the 3-month interventions, mean (95% confidence intervals) oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels decreased in the TMD + virgin olive oil (−10.3 U/L [−13.9 to −6.6]) and TMD + nuts (−7.2 U/L [−11.4 to −3.1]) groups, without changes in the low-fat diet group (−2.9 U/L [−6.7 to 1.0]). Change in oxidized LDL levels in the TMD + virgin olive oil group reached significance vs that of the low-fat group (P = .02). Malondialdehyde changes in mononuclear cells paralleled those of oxidized LDL. No changes in serum glutathione peroxidase activity were observed.
Conclusions Individuals at high cardiovascular risk who improved their diet toward a TMD pattern showed significant reductions in cellular lipid levels and LDL oxidation. Results provide further evidence to recommend the TMD as a useful tool against risk factors for CHD.
Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a list of health claims pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. This opinion addresses the scientific substantiation of health claims in relation to konjac mannan (glucomannan) and reduction of body weight, reduction of post-prandial glycaemic responses, maintenance of normal blood glucose concentrations, maintenance of normal (fasting) blood concentrations of triglycerides, maintenance of normal blood cholesterol concentrations, maintenance of normal bowel function and decreasing potentially pathogenic gastro- intestinal microorganisms. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States or directly from stakeholders.
The food constituent that is the subject of the health claims is konjac mannan (glucomannan). The Panel considers that konjac mannan (glucomannan) is sufficiently characterised.
Izvorni link: EFSA
Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on the essential composition of total diet replacements for weight control. Total diet replacements for weight control are intended to induce a substantial energy deficit in overweight or obese adults who wish to lose weight and replace the whole diet in the context of energy- restricted diets for weight reduction. In this opinion, the Panel proposed a minimum protein content based on a Population Reference Intake for protein adjusted for the overweight or obese (75g/day), a minimum carbohydrate content based on the obligatory glucose demands of the brain (30 g/day) and minimum contents of linoleic acid (11 g/day), α-linolenic acid (1.4 g/day) and micronutrients based on reference values established either by the Panel or by other scientific or authoritative bodies. Derived from the minimum content of macronutrients, the Panel proposed a minimum energy content of total diet replacements for weight control of 2 510 kJ/day (600 kcal/day). The Panel also advised on potential conditions and restrictions of use for these products.
© European Food Safety Authority, 2015
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